After more than ten years' development, machine tool manufacturing technology has produced many machine tools with different structures. However, from the perspective of development trend, there are two main trends:
1、 The scale characteristics of machine tool machining develop to the extreme direction
The machining accuracy of modern CNC machine tools is always an important index to measure the development level of machine technology. Now, the effect of machining accuracy is not limited to dimensional accuracy, shape accuracy and surface roughness, but also in the processing technology of microstructure. On the one hand, the shape scale feature of local machining is developing towards precision, on the other hand, the overall shape of machining is developing towards large size.
Driven by scientific and technological innovation, a large number of parts with micro structure are facing an important task in the development of precision machine tools. The application of micro structure parts is very extensive, such as solar power components, cell phone light guide plate, LCD brightening film, highway display panel, compound eye lens, diffraction grating, sensor elements, binary optical elements, micro lens, etc. With the appearance of microstructure, the machining of machine tools has entered a new field.
The appearance of micro structure puts forward new challenges to the machining of machine tools. There are new requirements for the kinematic accuracy, smoothness and damping characteristics of machine tools. In addition, the machining process, cutting tools and accessories of machine tools are also subject to new changes. New optical processing technologies, such as FTS, gouging, gouging and deterministic grinding, have emerged in the development of micro machining technology. The microstructural machine tools for machining large cylindrical, circular and planar surfaces have become competitive products in the market. Nano imprinting technology has been developed and applied accordingly.
The size of microstructure varies from a few hundred microns to a few microns, but the quality of the machined surface of microstructure is in the nanometer level. The dimensions of the whole parts with microstructure vary from millimeter to several meters.
In the field of micro structure manufacturing equipment, Japan, Germany and the United States have developed rapidly, and many new machine tools have emerged. Typical companies include: Toshiba machinery, FANUC, bueryue, Kugler, precitech, nanotechnology, etc.
It is worth mentioning that during this period, micro hole precision machining has also achieved rapid development. The pyramid ultra precision machine tool of Cohen company in Germany can use the same tool to process tens of thousands of micro holes with a diameter of no more than 0.1mm on semiconductor ceramic materials.
2、 The application of machine tools to meet the requirements of intelligent manufacturing
At present, intelligent manufacturing has become a new trend in the field of international manufacturing. Since the "fourth industrial revolution" (industrie 4.0) was put forward by Germany in Hanover Expo 2011, it has now entered the implementation stage. The goal of "the fourth industrial revolution" is to make factories intelligent Fabrik (smart factory). In 2013, the U.S. started the Reindustrialization of the intelligent era with the theme of manufacturing industry return. On the basis of flexible manufacturing, Japan has formed a relatively mature intelligent manufacturing technology. At present, the labor cost of China's manufacturing industry is rising, and the "labor shortage" in some regions also forces manufacturing enterprises to transform to the intelligent aspect.
The general trend of intelligent manufacturing technology requires that machine tools must adapt to their use requirements. From the development of intelligent manufacturing technology in the world, the most typical application feature is to require high reliability of various configurations. As the most basic component of intelligent manufacturing, the reliability of machine tool equipment becomes the most important assessment index.
The intelligent manufacturing technology can be seen as the technology developed on the basis of the previous two generations of flexible manufacturing technology. The first generation of FMS came into being in the 1980s. Its reliability measurement feature is that it can run continuously for 24 hours. The second generation came into being in the 1990s and can run continuously for 72 hours. Today's intelligent manufacturing system requires 720 hours of continuous operation. Therefore, the machine tools that can run continuously and reliably for a long time become another development trend.
The development of intelligent manufacturing
In the development of the three generations of intelligent manufacturing, the cost of human resources is constantly decreasing, and the participation of human beings in intelligent manufacturing is very little, but the complexity of robot is obviously improved. In the development of the second generation, the robot can only handle the fixed path, but the third generation robot can not only perceive the disorderly placed workpiece through the visual sensor, make the grasping action of different paths through judgment, but also perceive the centering state of the parts in the assembly process, and match the intelligent fixture to replace the work that can only be done by people in the past.
Intelligent manufacturing also puts forward requirements for other aspects of machine adaptability, such as cooperation with robots with sensors and perceptual alignment assembly, remote communication, etc.
There are many development trends of machine tools, such as multi-functional composite trend, reconfigurable trend, low energy consumption and environmental protection trend, which will not be introduced here.
The above two trends present different technical characteristics. The first trend is characterized by the leading edge and innovation of technology, focusing on the high-end technology. The second trend is characterized by the maturity of technology and the foundation of a country's manufacturing industry. These two characteristics can fully reflect the strength of the national manufacturing industry.